First, the content summary:
To check the understanding of the candidates with the types of risk factors and mechanical intrinsic protection requirements of main apparatus and areas during the produce and usage of machinery.
Second, the important factors, difficult points:
(1) Understand the primary categories of mechanical items;
(2) Understand the intrinsic china pulleys safety requirements of mechanical style and the type of safety gadget of the machine;
(3) Familiar with the boiler area, atmosphere compressor station, gas place, oxygen place, acetylene station dangerous point and general safety technology management requirements.
Third, the content material points out:
Machinery is a device that is assembled by a number of interconnected elements and may perform certain functions. During the operation of the mechanical apparatus, at least some of the essential contraindications motions are produced according to specific guidelines. The comprehensive mechanical gadget contains a excellent mover, a control and control program, a transmitting mechanism, a support gadget and an actuator.
Equipment is an necessary devices in contemporary creation and life. While getting high efficiency, velocity and comfort to people, the machine also brings mechanical harm such as impact, extrusion, reducing and various other non-mechanical hazards such as electrical surprise, sound and high temperatures during its manufacture, operation and make use of.
The task of mechanical safety is to take system measures to ensure the safety and health of workers in the entire process of production and use of machinery, from various dangerous factors. Mechanical basic safety includes two factors of the basic safety of mechanical item manufacturing and the safety of mechanical products.
1.1, mechanical product manufacturing safety
(1) Main groups of mechanical products
There are many types of mechanical products. The primary items of the equipment market are as follows:
(1) Agricultural equipment: tractors, internal combustion engines, planters, harvesting machinery, etc.
(2) Large mining machinery: metallurgical equipment, mining machinery, lifting machinery, launching and unloading equipment, commercial and mining vehicles, cement gear, etc.
(3) Construction machinery: forklifts, earthmoving machinery, compaction machinery, concrete equipment, etc.
(4) Petrochemical general machinery: oil drilling and mining machinery, oil refining machinery, chemical substance machinery, pumps, fans, valves, gas compressors, refrigeration and surroundings conditioning machinery, paper machinery, printing machinery, plastic material processing machinery, pharmaceutical machinery.
(5) Electrical machinery: power generation machinery, transformers, electrical motors, high and low voltage switches, wire and cable, batteries, electric welding machines, household appliances, etc.
(6) Machine tools: metal slicing machine tools, forging machines, foundry machinery, woodworking machinery, etc.
(7) Automobiles: trucks, road buses, cars, modified vehicles, motorcycles, etc.
(8) Instrumentation: automatic equipment, electric devices, optical musical instruments, element analyzers, automotive instrumentation, electric equipment, audio-visual apparatus, cameras, etc.
(9) Simple machinery: bearings, hydraulic parts, seals, powder metallurgy products, standard fasteners, industrial chains, gears, molds, etc.
(10) Packaging machinery: packaging machinery, metallic packaging items, metallic containers, etc.
(11) Environmental protection machinery: water pollution prevention equipment, surroundings pollution prevention equipment, solid waste materials treatment equipment, etc.
(12) Various other machinery.
The primary products of the non-mechanical industry include railway equipment, construction equipment, textile equipment, light industrial equipment, and underwater equipment.
(2) Mechanical safety design and machine safety device
Mechanical safety includes safety at all stages of design, manufacturing, installation, adjustment, use, maintenance, and disassembly. Protection style minimizes risk. Mechanical basic safety style refers to the proper shape and comparable position from the component material to the part in the mechanical design stage, from restricting the operating force, the quality and rate of the moving parts to reducing noise and vibration, using intrinsic basic safety technology and power source, applying zero The concept of pressured mechanical action between parts, mixed with ergonomic principles and additional methods, avoids or reduces the risk by choosing appropriate design constructions; it can also enhance the dependability, operation mechanization or automation of the equipment and Actions such as adjustments and maintenance outside the danger zone to prevent or reduce the danger.
Intrinsic safety is certainly a mechanical safety method that is certainly adopted by mechanical designers to take measures to get rid of mechanical hazards during the design phase.
1) Adopting intrinsic basic safety technology
Intrinsically safe technology refers to the design and manufacture of mechanical predetermined functions simply by using this technology. It can satisfy the basic safety requirements of the machine itself when performing established functions of the machine under established circumstances without using additional security safety measures. These consist of: staying away from sharpened edges, sharp sides and bulges; making sure sufficient basic safety distances; identifying limitations on physical quantities; using intrinsically safe procedures and power sources.
2) Limit mechanical stress
The mechanical stress of the mechanical parts does not exceed the permissible value and a adequate safety factor is guaranteed.
3) Security of components and materials
Components, fuels, and components utilized to make machinery must not endanger the basic safety or wellness of employees during use. The mechanical properties of the materials, such as tensile power, shear power, influence durability, produce limit, etc., should meet the weight requirements for executing the intended function; the material should end up being able to endure the predetermined environmental circumstances, such as corrosion resistance, ageing level of resistance, and level of resistance. The ability to use; the material should possess uniformity, prevent the metallographic structure of the material from being uneven due to unreasonable procedure style, and generate residual stress; at the same time, prevent using poisonous materials or substances, and should prevent the equipment itself or due to make use of. The risk of fire and explosion from fumes, fluids, dirt, vapors or various other chemicals created by specific components.
4) Fulfilling safety ergonomic principles
In the mechanical design, the protection man-machine design concept is fulfilled by rationally distributing human-machine functions, adapting to human body characteristics, man-machine interface design, function space design, etc., enhancing the operability and reliability of mechanical devices, and making the operator’s physical strength Intake and emotional stress are reduced, thus reducing operational errors.
5) Basic safety concepts for developing control systems
During the use of machinery, the common harmful conditions are: accidental start, out of control of speed modify, motion can not really end, shifting mechanical parts or workpieces fall off, the function of safety products is clogged. The design of the control system should consider into accounts the working modes of the numerous procedures or the usage of mistake display products so that the owner can deal with them properly.
6) Prevent the hazards of pneumatic and hydraulic systems
Machines that use pneumatic, hydraulic, thermal, and other devices must end up being designed to avoid the potential dangers associated with dog launch of these energies.
First, the content summary: